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TO THE 

REV. WILLIAM KIRBY, A. M. 
F. R. S. & F. L. S. 
^X RECTOR OF BARHAM, IN SUFFOLK, 

*^. WHOSE 

ARDEXT AND UNREMITTING ZEAL IN THE STUDY OF 



% 



THE WORKS OF NATURE, 

'^ AND WHOSE 

i 

*^ VALUABLE AND SCIENTIFIC LABOURS, 

DEMAND THE GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF 
/ EVERY TRUE FRIEND AND ADMIRER OF 

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9 

1 



NATURAL HISTORY; 

THE FOLLOWING 

"SYNOPTICAL LIST OF ENGLISH BUTTERFLIES" 

ENRICHED 

BY HIS ACCURATE AND VALUABLE REMARKS, 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



PREFACE. 

From the many additions, which have been 
made by scientific Entomologists to the List of 
English Butterflies, since the Publication of the 
Aurelian's Pocket Companion by Harris, in 1775; 
as well as from the circumstance of that Work 
having long been out of print, and therefore difficult 
to be procured; it is presumed that the admirers of 
tliis pleasing branch of Natural History will be 
interested in the appearance of a '' Fade Mecum" 
which is partly extracted from " Hawarth's Lepi- 
doptera" a work of great merit, but which is now 
not easily obtained. 

The Editor of the present little Work cannot 
but admit that it might have been more complete ; 
but it is not the province of Authors to point out 
their own defects : it is submitted therefore, such as 
it is, to the kind indulgence of the British Aiireli^ 
anist, with requesting his attention to the three 
following remarks : — 

1. In this Synoptical Table, are inserted the 
names of those Butterflies only, which are re- 
corded as purelij English on unquestionable 



authority ; except in a few iiistanees where they 
are marked as doubtful. 

2. To the List of that able Naturalist Haivarth, 
one species, P. Labienus, has been added.* 

3. That the respective Families have been simpli- 
fied ; and Twelve only ( the Sub-divisions being 
incorporated) retained. 

The Natural History of Animals is the most in- 
teresting to man as an animated being, and the 
most striking and prominent in the phenomena 
which it displays. And although the study of 
every class is most indisputably attended with pe- 
culiar advantages, yet it may safely be affirmed, 
that it is from the knowledg-e of the characters* 
metamorphoses, and various modes of life which In- 
sects are destined to pursue, that a more intimate 
acquaintance may be obtained with the laws of 
Nature, and veneration for the great Creator of alL 
than can be derived from the contemplation of any 
other class in the animated world. Entomology or 
the science of insects, therefore, has become a favorite 
pursuit ; and the talent and research, displayed in 
the elucidation of it by a Kirby and a Spence, com- 

* A species which was latel}' discovered by the Rev. 
Revett Sheppard, M. A. of Wrabness, in Essex, a most intel- 
ligent and scientific Naturalist, to whom the Editor is 
indebted for the " Synoptical Table," and for the idea of 
this little Work. 



bined with the moral and religious instruction which 
tlieir writings universally convey, cannot fail of 
increasing the number of votaries, and thereby 
opening " a mine of pleasure new, boundless and in- 
xhaustiide," 

But the most fascinating brancli of this study 
is perhaps the Genus Papilio — and however the 
Hunters of Butterflies may be laughed at by the 
vulgar, and whatever ridicule may be thrown upon 
this their favorite pursuit, still the great number and 
variety of these Insects, as well as the extreme 
beauty of some of them, cannot fail of attracting 
the notice and exciting the admiration of those, 
who are fond of contemplating the beauties and 
wonders of creation, and thereby rendering the 
study of them a source of pleasure and instruction. 

" See, exclaims the illustrious Linnceus — the large 
elegant painted wings of the Butterfly and four in 
number, covered with small imbricated scales ; 
with these it sustains itself in the air the whole 
day, rivalling the flight of birds and the brilliancy of 
the Peacock. Consider this insect tln-ough the 
wonderful progress of its life, how different is the 
first period of its being from the second, and both 
from the parent insect : its changes are an inexpli- 
cable enigma to us : we see a green Caterpillar fur- 
nished with sixteen feet, creeping, hairy, and 



feeding upon the leaves of a plant ; this is changed 
into a Chrysalis, smooth, of a golden lustre, hanging 
suspended to a fixed point, without feet, and sub- 
sisting without food : this insect again undergoes 
another transformation, acquires wings and six feet, 
and becomes a variegated white Butterfly, living 
by suction upon the honey of plants. What has 
Nature produced more worthy of our admiration ? 
Such an animal coming upon the stage of the world, 
and playing its part there under so many different 
masks! In the egg of the Papilio, the epidermis 
or external integument falling off, a Caterpillar is 
disclosed ; the second epidermis drying and being 
detached, it is a Chrysalis; and the third, aButterfly."* 
The alteration of form, which the whole of the 
papilionaceous tribe undergo, affords a subject of the 
most pleasing contemplation to the mind of the 
naturalist; and though a deeply philosophical sur- 
vey demonstrates that there is no real or absolute 
change produced in the identity of the creature 
itself, or that it is in reality any other than the 
gradual and progressive evolution of parts before 
concealed, and which lay masqued under the form 
of an insect of a v/idely different appearance, yet 
it is justly viewed with the highest admiration, and 
even generally acknowledged as, in the mo^t lively 
manner, typical of the last eventful change. 
• LinnsBUs Orat. on Insects — Am. Acad. v. 2. p. 356. 



If any regard be paid to a similarity of names, 
it should seem that the ancients were so struck 
with the transformations of the Butterfly, and 
its revival from a seeming temporary death, as to 
have considered it as an emblem of the soul j the 
Greek word 'Ivx^^ signifying both the soul and a 
butterfly. This is also confirmed by their allegorical 
sculptures, in which the butterfly occurs as an em- 
blem of immortalit3^ 

Swammerdam, speaking of the metamorphosis of 
insects, uses these strong words " This process is 
formed in so remarkable a manner in butterflies, 
that we see therein the resurrection painted before 
our eyes, and exemplified so as to be examined by 
our hands." 

Modern naturalists, impressed with the same no- 
tion, and laudably solicitous to apply it as an illus- 
tration of the awful mj^stery revealed in the sacred 
writings, have drawn their allusions to it from the 
dormant condition of the papilionaceous insects 
during their state of chrysalis, and their resuscita- 
tion from it. This idea is also beautifully expressed 
by the elegant Author of "the Pleasures of Memory," 
in the following very appropriate stanzas : — 

Child of the sun ! pursue thv rapturous flight, 
Mingling with her thou lov'st in fields of light ; 
And where the flowers of paradise unfold, 
Quaff fragrant nectar from their cups of gold. 



There shall thy wings, rich as an evening sky, 

Expand and shut with silent extasy. 

— Yet wert thou once a worm, a tlung that crept 

On the bare earth, then wrought a tomb and slept ! 

And such is man ; soon from his cell of clay 

To burst a seraph in the blaze of dav ! 

Rogers. 

Even the animated illustration taken from the 
vegetable world, so justly admired, as best calcu- 
lated for general apprehension, must yield in the 
force of its similitude to that drawn from the insect's 
life, since nature exhibits few phenomena that can 
equal so wonderful a transformation. 

It would, however, be a waste of time to prove 
how delightful and instructive it is to 

" Look through Nature up to Nature's God;" 

as well as an uselsss labor to demonstrate, that '* if 
any judicious or improved use is to be made of the 
natural bodies around us it must be expected from 
tliose, who discriminate their kinds, and study their 
properties." 

*' To see all things in God," say the Authors of 
the Introduction to Entomology, "has been account- 
ed one of the peculiar privileges of a future state ; 
and in this present life "to see God in all things," 
in the mirror of the creation to behold and adore 



the reflected glory of tlie Creator isno meaTi attain- 
ment ; and it possesses this advantage, that thus 
we sanctify our pursuits, and instead of loving the 
creatures for themselves, are led, by the survey of 
them and their Instincts, to the love of Him who 
made and endowed tliem." The more then we 
study the works of Creation, the more will the wis- 
dom and the goodness of the Creator be manifested ; 
and while we admire the order and harmony of the 
whole, or the beauty and variety of its parts, it will 
be impossible not to adore *' Him who is wise in 
heart, and wonderful in working," and at the same 
time confess with humility of soul, that 

" The Hand that made them is divine." 



Ipswich, M\y, 1824. L. J. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



Papilio, the Butterfly, is in Entomology a 
genus of Insects of the Order Lepidoptera (from 
XiTTi?, a scale, and Txepoy, a wing). Their generic 
character is, Antennoe, thickening towards the ex- 
tremity, and commonly terminating in a knob or 
clavated tip; and four wings covered with fine 
scales in the form of powder or meal, which, when 
sitting, are erect, and meet upwards. They fly in 
the day time. " The great number," says Dr. Shaw, 
"of species in this genus, makes it absolutely neces- 
sary to divide them into sections or sets, instituted 
from the habit or general appearance, and in some 
degree, from the distribution of the colours on the 
wings. This division of the genus is conducted by 
Linnaeus in a peculiarly elegant and instructive man- 
ner, being an attempt td combine natural and civil 
history, by attaching some illustrious ancient name 
to an insect of such or such particular cast." The 
names of Butterflies are, however, sometimes taken 
from the plants on which they feed. 

The Butterfly feeds on the nectareous juice of 
flowers, or on the saccharine substance which ex- 
udes from the leaves of vegetables, and will some- 



10 



times alight, and suck the sweets of ripe fruit that 
has been broken by its fall. 

The greater part of those Lepidopterous insects, 
which come forth in the spring or summer, perish 
or disappear at the approach of winter. There are 
few, the period of whose life exceeds that of a year. 
Some outlive the rigors of winter from being con- 
cealed under ground, and others remain hid in the 
bark of trees, or in chinks of old walls, but the 
pi'oportion of those which survive is very incon- 
siderable, unless it be those in the egg state. Those 
which are hatched in the autumn and live under 
ground, or in other places of security during winter, 
usually come forth in the spring, take proper 
nourishment and undergo their several changes to 
the perfect state. 

The papilionaceous insects in general, soon after 
their enlargement from the chrysalis, and commonly 
during their first flight, discharge some drops of 
r«d-colored fluid, more or less intense in different 
species. " This circumstance," observes Dr. Shaw, 
*'is peculiarly worthy of attention from the explana- 
tion which it affords of a phenomenon sometimes 
considered, both in ancient and modern times, in 
the light of a prodigy; viz. the descent of red drops 
from the air; which has been called a shower of 
blood : an event recorded by several wrkers, and 
particularly by Ovid, among the prodigies which 
took place aftej* the death of the great dictator. 



11 



" Si«pe faces visoe mediis ardere sub astns, 

Sa^pe inter nimbos gutt?e cecidere cruentap." 

" AVith threatening signs the lowering skies were fill'd, 

And sanguine drops from miu-ky clouds distill'd." 

This highly rational elucidation of a phenomenon, 
at first view so inexplicable, seems to have been 
discovered by the celebrated Pierescius, at Aix, in 
Provence, where a shower of this kind fell in 1 608 — 
the common people were terrified with the appre- 
hension of some great general calamity — but that 
intelligent Naturalist, enquiring into the affair with 
minute attention, was fully convinced that these 
drops were scattered by an innumerable swarm of 
t!ie Papilio C. Album, hovering in the air r he pre- 
served several of the Caterpillars of this insect in a 
glass, which after their transformation discharged 
these drops of blood — This discovery ruined two 
hypotheses, which had been supported with equal 
ability, one, that it was the work of evil spirits, 
the other, that these drops were formed from red 
exhalations precipitated again in rain. * 

The same notion was also entertained by Sw^am- 
raerdam, though he does not appear to have verified 
it from liis own observation. 

The Larvce of Butterflies are universally and 
emphatically known by the name of Caterpillars, 
and are extremely various in their forms and colours; 
some being smooth, and some beset with either 
simple or ramified spines; while others are seen to 

• Avehn ]Miracula Insectoruin, x\ni. Acad, v- 3. n. :u;i. 



12 



protrude from their neck, when disturbed, a forked 
scent-organ, which probably is intended to drive 
away the Ichneumons that attack them. They 
are also furnished with palpi, jaws, several eyes, 
and sixteen feet, and are in their motions very ac- 
tive and alert. 

That accurate observer of Nature, accomplished 
scholar, and high! pleasing Poet, the late Rev. Dr. 
Hurdis, has thus minutely described the birth and 
habits of the Caterpillar. 

'* Hatch'd by the sunbeam fi-om contiguous cells, 
Around the slender apple-twig combin'd 
In circuit orderly, egg glued to egg^ 
Issue the caterpillar swarm minute. 
There left, oviparous, her half-born brood. 
Ere summer clos'd, the parent left and died. 
There have they still endur'd, and still survived 
Sharp winter's t3Tp.miy ; the bitter frost. 
That slew the myrtle, and the lasting leaf 
Of the screen'd laurel chang'd, no death to them. 

Now busily conven'd, upon the bud 
That crowns their genial branch they feast sublime, 
And spread their muslin canopy around, 
Pavilion'd richer than the proudest king. 
The spinster Caterpillar ties aloft, 
Fine as the gossamer, his slender cord 
To his lov'd cradle, the recor'riiig elm. 
And playfully suspended, rocks and whirls, 
And, ere his wings are granted, lives in air." 

Favorite Village, b.4. p. I75, 6, 



13 

The Caterpillar, whose lite is one coiitiiuied 
succession of changes, often moults its skin before 
it attains its full growth — and it is not simply 
the skin that is changed, for when it moults, 
in the exuviae are found the skull, jaAvs, and 
all the exterior parts both hcaly and membrana- 
ceous, which compose its upper and under lip ; its 
antennae, palpi, even those crustaceous pieces within 
the head which serve as a fixed ba'^is to a number of 
muscles, with the spiracles, the claws and sheaths 
of the anterior legs, and in general the traces of all 
that is visible in the external figure of the Caterpil- 
lar. This change is effected by the insect with- 
drawing itself from the outer skin, when it 
finds itself incommoded from being confined 
within too narrow a compass; but to accomplish this 
change is the work of some labor and time — the 
Caterpillar generally fasts a whole day after moult- 
ing. The Caterpillars of Lepidopterous insects, 
with a few exceptions, are destitute of all means of 
defence, and are the prey of birds, and other vo- 
racious creatures. Many of them feed close to the 
ground or under the surface, subsisting on the lower 
parts or roots of plants ; and for this reason many 
kinds are seldom seen, and others remain unknown. 
Some of the Lepidopterous Caterpillars are solitary, 
others live in society. *'' A Caterpillar, when grown 

• Shaw, vol 6. p. 206. 



J4 



to its full size, retires to some convenient spot, and 
securing itself properly by a small quantity of silken 
filaments, either suspends itself by the tail, hanging 
with its head downwards, or else in an upright 
position, with the body fastened round the middle 
by a proper number of filaments. It then casts off 
the Caterpillar skin and commences Chrysalis, in 
which state it continues till the enclosed Butterfly 
is ready for birth, which, liberating itself from the 
skin of the Chi'ysalis, remains till its wings, which 
are at first very short, weak, and covered with 
moisture, are fully extended: this happens in the 
space of a quarter of an hour, when the animal 
suddenly quits the state of inactivity to which it 
had been so long confined and becomes at pleasure 
an inhabitant of the air." 

This wonderful resuscitation has been so spiritedly 
described by the French Poet of Nature, that no 
apology will,ItruT>t, be required for the insertion of 
the following extract from his '^ Jardins." 

" Voyez ce Papillon e'chappe du tombeau, 

Sa mort ftit un sommeil, et sa tombe un berceau ; 

II brise le fourreau qui Techainait dans I'ombre ; 

Deux yeux paraient son front, et ses yeux sont sans nombre ; 

II se trainait a peine, 11 part corame Teclair ; 

II rampait sur la terre, il voltige dans I'air." 

De Lille. 



15 



Nor can I resist offerincr another equally applica- 
ble quotation from the amiable Hurdis ; 

*' fiehold ag&in with saftron wing superb 
The giddy Butterfly. Released at length 
From his warm winter cell, he mounts on high, 
No longer reptile, but endued with plumes, 
And through the blue air wanders ; pert alights, 
And seems to sleep, but from the treacherous hand 
Snatches his beauties suddenly away 
And zig-zag dances o'er the flowery dell." 

Favorite Village, b. 4. p. 172, 3. 

The Pupa, of Chrysalis is naked, and remains 
torpid for a longer or shorter period; frequently, 
hanging to different substances by means of threads 
attached to its middle or tail — The eggs or Chry- 
salises of some of the species, will lie dormant for 
several years, it being an undoubted fact, that a 
species of Butterfly shall be plentiful one year, and 
not be seen again till many years after. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING AND 
PRESERVING BUTTERFLIES. 



J, It is useless to go <5ut to collect Butterflies if 
the weather be cool, or much wind stirring, as at 
such times almost all kinds of insects conceal them- 
selves — A warm damp air, such as generally comes 
after rain, is what they prefer, when they fly near 
the earth to enjoy the humidity which arises in 
steams from the ground. — In hot and dry days it is 
common to see the Butterflies settle in numbers on 
the mud in ditches; from this it may be inferred 
that heat, with moisture, best agrees with their na- 
ture. P. Brassicce is a good token for fine weather; 
when any number of this species are out in a 
morning, it rarely happens but a fine day ensues. 

2. Boxes which are taken in the pocket for 
Caterpillars, and cages for breeding insects, should 
not be made of deal or fir, except they be well lined 
with paper, with iioles in the sides and tops covered 
with crape or ranvas; for the effluvia of the turpen- 
tine, raised by the heat of the pocket, or of the 
sun, is extremely prejudicial to them, and seldom 
fails to destroy the greater part of the Caterpillars 



17 

contained therein for any length of time — The 
cause of the deaths of the Caterpillars, found at the 
bottoms of cages or pocket-boxes, is generally at- 
tributed to bruises got in beating the trees, when 
collecting them; but this is a great mistake, as those 
which happen to be injured in beating, seldom die 
till the time of changing their skin, or of their 
transformation. 

3. In the preservation of the Chrysalides during 
the winter, it will be necessary to keep them in cold 
and moist places, as in a cellar or out-house, or the 
greater part of them will be killed, especially those 
whose nature it is to change in the earth ; for dry 
warmth is apt to exhale the nutritive moisture 
from them, harden the shell and weaken the insects 
so much, that at the time when they should appear 
in their winged state, they have not strength left 
sufficient to burst open the Chrysalis and come forth 
from their confinement. 

4. When any of the Butterflies are extended on 
the setting board beneath the card braces, let them 
remain in that situation, till not only the aqueous 
moisture, but the oily and saline particles also, be 
evaporated; otherwise the wings will not only start 
from their natural position, but the bodies, with the 
antennas, will grow mouldy when in the cabinet ; 
and what is of worse consequence, breed millions 



IS 



of nnitnalcnics, which, except some remedy is ap- 
plied, will infallibly destroy them. — They should 
therefore be kept in some dry place, open to the 
air, but free from dust, for a considerable time be- 
fore they are placed in the cabinet. 

5. If at any time the preserved insects should 
appear as if growing mouldy, or be infested with 
small animalculeSj which may be known by a kind 
of dust seen beneath the abdomen — the only effectu- 
al remedy is the smoke of tobacco, which must be 
blown through the small end of a pipe — through a 
hole made for that purpose, at the back of the 
drawer or box which contains them. — This not 
only corrects the putrid and stagnant air, but kills 
those formidable enemies which often destroy 
whole cabinets of insects — this process will preserve 
them for twelve months, when it will be necessary 
to repeat it — the smoke will not in any degree injure 
the beauty of the insects. 

Butterflies may be easily killed, by pressing the 
thorax or breast, betwixt the finger and thumb 
and it is preferable to have the wings closed because 
they thus occupy less space, and their colour and 
lustre are better preserved — they can easily be after- 
wards expanded by the steam of hot water ; and 
should be handled as little as possible, lest the 
delicate down to which manv of them owe their 



If) 



greatest beauty, should be disturbed or destroyed. 
They may also be killed by putting them in a glass 
•immersed-half way up in boiling water, covering 
the top close; or by placing them on a plate, under 
an inverted tumbler, anil setting it before the fire a 
minute or two. Great care should be taken that the 
antennce feelers or legs are not injured. — A i)iii 
should be stuck through their thorax, by the 
means of which they may be fixed in the bottom of 
a box lined with cork. Camphor ought to be put 
into the box. 

: In collecting .Butterflies it is necessary to use 
either forceps or nets. The forceps are about 
ten or twelve inches in length, provided with fans 
of a . circular or other form, and are covered with 
gauze; they are held and moved as a pair of scissors, 
and are used to catch the insects when at rest : but if 
they are on the wing, and within reach, a hand 
uet will be necessary. The net is very easily 
made. — It is of gauze or any very fine open muslin, 
a yaj'd and half square made upon a piece of 
cane four feet in length, split down the middle 
about half way— the split part is tied together^ 
so as to form a hoop, upon which the gauze is 
sewed in the form of a bag ; the lower part serves 
as a handle and with this Butterflies, and all flying 
insects, may be very easily caught. When the insect 
is once within the rim of the net, by turning it on 



20 



either side, its escape is completely prevented by 
the pressure of the gauze or muslin against the 
edge of the hoop. If they are beyond your 
reach, you must use a casting net, which may be 
made thus: — tie a weight (a half-penny for 
instance), in one of the corners of a piece of gauze, 
about the size of a common handkerchief, a lighter 
weight in the second corner, and a bit of very light 
wood in the third : the inequality in the weight 
and bulk of these substances, will occasion the 
gauze to open, when thrown from the hand : a thin 
piece of twine, a yard or two long, may be tied to 
the remaining corner, by which the net may be 
drawn in at pleasure. The art of spreading it to its 
full extent may be acquired with very little practice. 
The intestines of Butterflies should be extracted, 
which may be done by cutting a slit with a fine 
pointed pair of scissors, at the extremity of the 
body, and gently pressing them out ; a small roll 
of cotton or paper, dipped in anticeptic powder 
should then be introduced, so as to extend the body 
to its natural form. 



TERMS 



Used ill ike Description of ike various Parts of 
the Butterfly, rvith reference to the Plate. 



a Head. 
h Eyes. 
c Palpi. 

d Knobs of the Antennae, 
e Threads of theAntennae 
f Tongue. 
g Thorax. 
h Shoulders. 

i Scutellum or Escutcheon 
k Abdomen with its Anuli 
/ Tips or Apices. 
m Sector Edge, 
w Fringes. 
o Sector. 

p Abdominal Groove. 
q Tails. 
r Abdominal Corners. 



s Lower Corners of the 
superior Wings 

t Outer Corners of the in- 
ferior ditto. 

, u Abdominal Edges 

w Anus. 

X Ocelli, Eyes, or Eyelets* 

y Bar, Band or Garter. 

. A Superior Wings angu- 
lated. 

B Superior Wing, smooth 
or even edged. 

C Inferior Wing scallop- 
ed. 

D Inferior Wing indent- 
ed. 



The inferior pari s o}' Ihc Superior Wing described. 

The Parts coloured Gree7i, are the Fan-Tendons 
and Membranes, marked in Numerical Order; 
viz. 1st. 2d. 3d. iVc. 

Papiliones have only five of these Membranes, 
and six Tendons. 

The parts coloured with Pink, are the Tables. 

The Pale Blue, shews the Sectors. 

Shoulder Membrane — Yello7v. 

Slip Membrane — Pale Orange. 

Long Membrane — Purple. 

The Parts coloured Blue, are the Sector Ten- 
dons and Membranes, and it is in this part of 
the Wing only, wherein one Genus differs from 
another. 

The Grand Tendons are three in number ; viz. 

7 Long Tendon, "n 

8 Principal Tendon, s. Grand Tendons. 

9 Shoulder Tendon, J 

10 Table Tendon. 

1 1 Slip Edge. 

12 Bar Tendon. 

Interior parts of the Inferior Wing described. 
Green shews the Fan-Tendons and Membranes, 
which are the same in number as in the superior 
Wings. 



Grand Tendons. 



23 



Pink, shews the Table Membrane. 
Bhie. The Sector. 

Yellow. Table Membrane, or Bent ditto. 
Purple. Long Membrane. 
Acute Membrane. 

Pale Orange. Grand Tendons, three in number ; 
viz. 

15 Posterior Tendon, 

16 Table Tendon, 

17 Bent or Femoral 

Tendon, 

18 Spur ; this part answers to that little instru- 
ment in the Phalsena, called Spring. 

1 3 Abdominal Tendon . 

14 Long Tendon. 

The several parts of the inferior Wings greatly 
correspond with the respective parts of the supe- 
rior, yet here are no parts answerable to the Sector 
Tendons and Membranes, and which are distin- 
guished with Purple in the superior ; there is 
another on the opposite edge of the Wing, called 
The Abdominal Membrane, which is coloured 
Purple. 



Errata. 

Page 26, No. 17. For Polydama read Polymeda* 

* Haworth has by mistake called this Polydama^ referring 
lo Scopoli, whose name is what we have given. Fabricius 
lias a Pohjdamas which is a different Insect. 



LIST 



Butterflies and their Families. 



* Swallow-Tails. 

1 Machaon Swallow-tail, f L. pi. 34. 

2 Podalirius Scarce Swallow-tail. L. pi. 35. 

** Whites. 

3 CraUegi Black veined White. L. pi. 24. 

4 Brassicce Large AVliite. L. pi. 25. 

5 RapcB Small ^Y\\\te. L. pi. 26. 

6 Napi Green-veined White. L. pi. 27. 

7 Sinapis Wood AVhitc. L. pi. 29. 4, 5. 

8 Daplidice Green-chequered WTiite. L. pi. 28. 

9 Cardamines Orange Tip. L. pi. 30. 

*^* Yellows. 

10 Edusa Clouded Yellow. L. pi. 32. 

1 1 Helice White clouded Yellow. 

12 Europome Clouded Sulphur. 

13 Hyale Pale clouded Yellow. L. pi. 33. 1,2 

14 Rhamni Brimstone. L. pi. 31. 

t L. t^ignifies Lfwin's Kn^lish Pntterflies. 



'20 







*^% Ringlets. 


15 


HyperanthuSi 


„ Ringlet. L. pi. 20. 


16 


Davus 


...Small Ringlet. L. pi. 23. 5, «. 


17 


Polymeda 


..Marsh Ringlet. 


18 


Typhm , 


...Scarce Heath. 


19 


Pamphilus.... 


..Small Heath. L. pi. 23. 3, 4. 


77 


Ligea. 




78 


Mnemon. 




79 


Alcyone. 




80 


Blandina. 





\*^* OCELLATED. 

20 lo Peacock. L. pi. 4. 

21 Iris Purple Emperor. L. pi. 16. 

22 Cardui Painted Lady. L. pi. 6. 

23 Semek Grayling. L. pi. 17- 

24 Galatea Marbled AYliite. L. pi. 28. 

25 Megcera Wall. L. pi. 21. 

26 ^geria Speckled Wood. L. pi. 19. 

27 hampstediensis... Alhin's Hampstead Eye. 

28 Jurtina Meadow Brown. L. pL 18. 

29 Pilosell<B Large Heath. L. pL 22. 

****** Scalloped, 

30 C. album Comma. L. pL 5. 

3 1 Urtkce Small Tortoise-shell. L. pi. 3. 



♦21 

32 Polyehloros Large Tortoise-shell. L. pL 2. 

33 Antiopa "White-bordered. L. pi. 1. 

34 Atalanta Red Admiral. L. pi. 7- 

35 Camilla White Admiral. L. pi. 8. 

***^*** Silver- Spotted Fritillaries. 

36 Paphia Silver-washed Fritillarj. L. pi. 9. 

37 Aglaia .Dark-^een Fritillary. L. pL 11. 

38 Churlotta Queen of England Fritillary. 

39 Adippe High-brown Fritillar}'. L. pi. 10. 

40 Lathonia Queen of Spain Fritillary. L. pi. 1 2. 

41 Euphrosyne Pearl-bordered Fritillary. L. pLl3. 1, 2, 

42 SUene SmallPearl-borderedFritillary.L.pl. 13.3,4. 

******** Buff-Spotted Fritillaries. 

43 tessellata Straw May Fritillary. 

44 Dictynna Pearl-borderedLikeness. L. pi. 14. 5,6- 

45 Eos Dark under-winged Fritillary. 

46 Cinxia Glanville Fritillary. L. pi. 14.3, 4. 

47 Artemis Greasy Fritillar}% L. pi. 15. 3, 4. 

48 Lucina Duke of Burgundy Fritillary. L.pL15.5,6. 

********* Hair-Streaks. 

49 Betula Brown Hair Streak. L. pi. 42. 

50 Pruni Black Hair Streak. 

51 Qriercus Purple Hair Streak. L. pi. 43 

52 Rubi Green Hair Streak. L. pi. 44. 



*22 



**'%****** Coppers. 

53 Dispar Large Copper. L. pi. 40. 

54 Virgaurece I^Iiddle Copper. L. pi. 41. 1, 2. 

55 Chryseis Purple-edged Copper. 

56 Phlceas Common Copper. L. pi. 41 

*****»**\* Blues or Arguses 

57 Arion Large Blue. L. pi. 37. 1, 2. 

58 Cort/don Chalk-hill Blue. L. pi. 36. 1, 2, 3. 

59 Labienus Pink Argus. 

60 Adonis Clifden Blue. L. pi. 38. 1, 2, 3. 

61 Icarus Common Blue. L. pi. 38. 4, 5, 8. 

62 Hyacinthus Light Blue. L. pi. 37. 4, 5, 6. 

63 Argus Silver-studded Blue. L. pi. 39. 5, 6, 7. 

64 Idas Brown Argus L. pi. 39. 1, 2. 

65 Artaxerxes Scotch Argus. L. pi. 39. 8, 9. 

66 Argiolus Azure Blue. L. pi. 36. 4, 5, 6. 

67 Cymon Mazarine Blue. L. pi. 38. 6, 7. 

68 Alms.. Small Blue. L. pi. 39. 3, 4. 

V********* Skippers. 

69 Paniseus Chequered Skipper. 

70 Comma Silver-spotted Skipper. L. pL 45. 1, 2. 

71 Sylvanus Large Skipper. L. pi. 46. 1, 2, 3. 

72 Linea Small Skipper. L. pi. 45. 1, 2. 

73 Tages Dingy Skipper. L. pi 45. 3, 4. 

74 MalvcB Grizzled Skipper. L. pi. 46. 8, 9. 

75 LavatercB. Scarce Grizzled Skipper. L. pi. 46. 4, 5. 

Abbbeviations. 

b. "j ( beginning. 

ra. > sigiii/ii's. < middle, 
e. j (end. 



SYNOPTICAL TABLE 



ENGLISH BUTTERFLIES. 







24 




No. 

1 


Linnaean Name. 
Papilio. 


English Name, 
Butterfly. 


Caterpillar 
Feeds upon. 


Machaon 


Swallow-tail 


On Fennel an 
other Umbellife 
rous Plants ant 
Rue 


2 


Podalirius 


Scarce Swallow- 
tail 


1 

Cabbage 


3 


Craicegi 


Black^veined 
White 


\Vhite-Thorn, ' 
Gooseberry 


4 


Brassicos 


Large White 


Cabbage 


5 


Eapce 


Small White 


Cabbage k Turni] 


6 


Napi 


Green-veined 
White 


Cabbage 


7 


Sinapis 


Wood White 


Mustard 

< 


8 


Daplidice 


Green-chequer- 
ed White 


1 

Wild-Woad,Bas« 
Rocket and Calj 
bage 


9 


Cardamines 


Orange-Tip 


Cuckoo Flower 


10 


Edusa 


Clouded Yellow 


Grass 


11 


Helice 


White-clouded 
Yellow 















25 



Caterpillar 


Butterfly. 


Expan. 


WTien found. Where found. When found. 


In. lines 


July, Sep. , 


Fenny places. 
Catton, Acle, Norf. 
Cherry Hinton, Mad- 

ingley, Whittlesea, 

Cambridge. 


! 
e. May, b. Aug. 


3 7 


May 


Woods, Bedfordshire. 


May, Aug. 


3 6 


1 
i 
Spring 


Gardens & Thickets. 


June 


2 10 


Summer 


Gardens. 


m. May, m. Aug. 


2 11 


Summer 


Gai'dens. 


m. May, m. Aug. 


2 2 


Summer 


Gardens, Woods and 
Thickets. 


m. May, b. July 


2 1 




Woods, Stour and 
Hartley Woods, and 
Bromley Thickets, 
Essex. 


m. May, b.Aug. 


1 8 






White Wood, near 
Gamlingay, Camb. 
near Hampstead, 
Middlesex. 


Apr. May, Aug. 


1 10 






Woods and Lanes. 


e. May 


1 11 


Spring 


Marshes, Beaumont, 
Essex. 


Spring, m. Aug. 


2 4 




Gardens & MeadowSj 


m. Aug. 


2 3 




1 Little Chelsea. 



?6 



No. 


Linnaean Name. 
Papilio, 


English Name. 
Butterfly. 


Caterpillar 
Feeds upon. 


12 


Europome 

Hyale 

1 


donrlpd Siilnhur 


13 


Pale-clouded 
Yellow 


Grass 


14 


Rkamni 


Brimstone 


Buckthorn 


15 


Hyperanthus 


Ringlet 


Grass, at the roots 
of Annual Mea- 
dow Grass 


16 

17 
18 
19 


Ti/ltMIC 


Small Ringlet 
Marsh Ringlet 




Pohjdama 

Typhon 

Pamphilus 






Small Heath 




Crested Dog's tail 
Grass 


20 


lo 


Peacock 


Common Nettle 



Caterpillar. 


Butterfly. 


Expan. 


When found. 


Wliere found . When found. 


In. lines 




Meadows and Road- 
sides, near Ipswich^ 
Suffolk. 


m. Aug. 


2 3 




July 
Spring 




m. Auff. 


2 2 


Woods and Road- 
sides. 


Spring, b. June, 
6l in A utumn 


2 6 




Woods. 


e. June 


1 10 




Marshes, near Man- 
chester. 


July 


1 5 






Marshes, Yorkshire, 

Marshes, Yorkshire. 

Heaths, Pastures, 
Way-sides. 


June 

June 

b. June 
b. Sept. 


1 7 
1 7 
1 4 




b. May, 
b. ,Aug. 


b. July 


Woods, Fields, Roads. 


Spring 
ni. July 


3 



28 



No. 


LinnaeanName. 
Papilio. 


English Name. 
Butterfly. 


Caterpillar. 
Feeds upon. 


21 


Iris 


Purple Emperor 


Common Sallow 


22 


Cardui 


Painted Lady 


Spear Thistle 


23 


Semele 


Grayling 


Grass 


24 


Galatea 


Marbled White 


Grass 


25 


Megcera 


Wall 


Grass 


26 


Mgeria 


Speckled Wood 


Grass 


27 


hampstediensis 


Albin's Hamp- 
stead Eye 






28 


Jurlina 


Meadow Brown 


Grass 


29 


Pilosellce 


Large Heath i 


Mouse-ear Hawk" 
weed 



29 



Caterpillar. 
^\Tien found. 

e. May 



m July 



Butterfiy. 
Where found. When found. 



b. May 
b. Aug. 

March, May 
June. 



b. June 



Woods, on the Oak. 

Great & Little Stour 
Woods. VVrabness 
?nd Ramsey, Essex. 
Badley, Suffolk. 

Field-sides and Gar- 
dens Campsey Ash, 
Suffolk. Lexden 
6l Wrabness, Essex. 

Eleaths & Thickets 
llushmere Heath, 
Nacton Heath, and 
Langar Common 
Suffolk. Lexden 
Heath, Essex. 

Moist Woods. Mersey; 
Island, Stour and 
Hartley Woods, 
Essex. 

Woods & Way-sides. 
Woods. 



Hampstead, Middle- 
sex. 

Woods & IMeadows. 

Woods, Pastures and 
Commons. 



b. July 



Spring, e. July 



m. July 



Expan.l 
In. lines 



3 2 



2 5 



b. July 



Spring, b. July, 
b. Aug. 

b.April,b,June, 

b. Auff. 



2 2 



1 10 



1 10 



b. June 
m. July 



2 
1 8 



so 



Nn 


Linnaean Name. 


English Name. 


Butterfly. 




Papilio. 


Butterfly. 


Feeds upon. 


SO 


C. album 


Comma 


Hop, Nettle, Wil- 
low & Gooseberry 


31 


Urticce 


Small Tortoise- 
shell 


Common Nettle 


32 


Polychloros 


Large Tortoise- 
shell 


Elm, and on Fruit 
Trees 


33 


Antiopa 


White-bordered 


Willow and Birch 


34 


Atalanta 


Red Admiral 


Common Nettle 


35 


Camilla 


White Admiral 


Honey-suckle 


S6 


Paphia 


Silver-washed 
Fritillary 


Violet 


37 


Aglaia 


Dark-green Fri- 
tillary 


Violet 


88 


Charlotia 


QueenofEngland 
Fritillary 






39 


Adippe 


High-brownFri- 
tillary 


Violet and Hearts 
ease 



SI 



Caterpillar. 
When found. 



m. June 



b. June 
m. Aug. 



Spring 



Spring 
b. July 



e. May 
m. May 



m. May 



Butterfly. 
Where found. When found. 



Gardens & Thickets. 



Gardens and Way- 
sides. 



b. July, b. Sep. 



Spring, b. July. 



b. Sept. 



Roads and Lanes, in m. July 
the neighbourhood! 
of Elm-trees, j 

Woods & Road-sides Spring, b. Aug. 
on the Oak. Little! m. Sep. 
Oakley, Essex. I 



Woods, Hedges and 
Gardens. 

Woods, near Rye, 

Sussex. 

Woods. Lexden and 
StourWoods, Essex 

Heaths. Lexden, 
Essex. Nacton,Sufi'. 

Woody places. Bed- 
fordshire. 



Woods. Hintlesham, 
Suffolk. Stourand 
Hartley Woods, tV 
Bromley Thickets, 
Essex. 



Spring, m. July^ 
b. Aug. 

b. July 
b. July 
b. July 
b. July 

b. July 



Expan. 
In. lines 

2 

2 3 

3 



2 10 



2 5 



2 8 



2 7 



2 8 



32 



No. 


Linnaean Name. 
Papilio. 


English Name. 
Butterfly. 


Caterpillar, 
Feeds upon. 


40 


Lalhonia 


Queen of Spain 
Fritillary 


Hearts ease 


41 


Euphrosyne 


Pearl-bordered 
Fritillary 






42 


Silenc 


Small Penrl-hnr- 




dered Fritillary 




43 


tessellata 


Straw May Fri- 
tillary 






44 


Dictynna 


Pearl-bordered 
Likeness 






45 


Eos 


Dark under- 
winged Fri- 
tillary 






4G 


Cinxia 


Glanville Fritil- 
lary 


Ribwort Plantain 


47 


Artemis 


Greasy Fritilla- 


Devil's-bit Scabi- 






ry 


ous 


48 


Lucina 


Duke of Bur- 
gundy Fritil- 
lary 


Grass 



33 



Caterpillar. 
AVhen found. 



m. April 



m. April 



Butterfly. 
Where found. When found. 



Woods. Gamlingay^ 
Wisbeach, Camb. 
near London On 
the Dandelion in 
dry pastures by a 
wood, in Stoke by 
Nayland. 

Heaths and Woods. 
Stour and Hartley 
WoodSj Essex. 

Heaths and Woods. 
Stour and Hartley 
Woods, Essex. 

Caen-wood. Middle- 
sex. 

Heaths and Marshes. 



e. May, b. Sep. 



Heaths and Marshes 



Meadows. 



]\ray 

May, b. July 

b. May 
b. May 
b. May 

m. June 



Meadows, near Nor- j^. May 
wich, Norfolk. 



Woods, and Hedges 
near Camb. Hin- 
tlesham, Suff. 



e. May 



No. 


LinnaeanName. 
PapU'io. 


English Name. 
Butterfly. 


Caterpillar. 
Feeds upon. 


49 


Betuke 


Brown Hair- 
streak 


Birch, Black- 
Thorn 


50 


Prnni 


BlackHair-streak 


Plumb Tree 


51 


Quercus 


Purple Hair- 
streak 


1 
Oak 


52 


Ruhi 


Green Hair- 
streak 


Bramble 


53 


Bis par 

Firgaitrece 


Large Copper 
Middle Copper 




54 


Grass 


55 


Chryseis 


Purple-edged 
Copper 






56 


Phloeas 


Con^mon Cop- 








per 


' 


51 


Avion 


Large Blue 




58 


Corydon 


Chalk-hill Blue 


Wild Thyme 



35 



Caterpillar. 




Butterfly. 


Expan. 


When found. 


1 Where found. When found. 


In. lines 


e. June. 


Birch Woods. 


m Aug, 


1 6 


b. July. 


Gardens and Hedges 
Wrabness, Essex. 


e. June 


1 5 


b. June 


Tops of Oak and 
Ash Trees, Wrab- 
ness, Essex. 


m. July 


I 5 


Spring 
b. July 


Hedges & Bramble. 


e. May, 
b. Aug. 


1 3 




Reedy marshes, Bar- 
dolph Fen, Norfolk, 
&Whittlesea Mere. 


e. July 


2 






Marshes, on the Com- 
mon Golden Rod, 
Isle of Ely, and 
Huntingdonshire. 

Marshes, Epping Fo- 
rest, Essex, Ash- 
downham, Sussex. 

Commons, Pastures 
and Field-sides. 


e. Aug. 

Autumn 

b. April, b.June 
b. Aug. 


1 6 

1 5 
1 4 








Commons, Broomham, 
Bedfordshire, and 
Dover Cliffs. 


b. July 


1 7 






Chalk-pits, Little 
Blakenham, Suffolk. 


b. July 


1 6 





36 



No. 



Linnaean Name 



Papilio. 



59 I -P. Labienus 



60 Adonis 



6i Icarus 



62 Hyacinthus 



6S ! Argus 



6^ I Idas 



65 Artaxerxes 



66 j Argiolus 

67 \ Cymon 



68 \ Alsus 



English Name. 
Butterfly. 



Caterpillar 
Feeds upon. 



Pink Argus 



Clifden Blue 



Common Blue 



Light Blue 



Silver-studded 
Blue 



Brown Argus 



Scotch Argus 



Azure Blue 



Mazarine Blue 



Small Blue 



Grass 



Grass 



Grass 



Grass 



37 
Caterpillar I Butterfly. 

^VTien found. Where found. When found. 




Pastures, WVabness, 
Essex. 



Chalky soils. 



Chalky soils 



e. April Commons, Fields & 
I Marshes. 



e. April, Fields. 
e. June • 



b. Aug. 

e. May, m.Aug. 

e. May, e. Aug. 

m. July 

m. July 

e. May, m. July 



Expan. 
In. lines 



1 



I 5 



1 4 



1 4 



Meadows, Scotland, e. July 



. Woody places and 

I Meadows. 

I 

. Chalky soils, Norfolk 
Yorkshire & Sher- 

1 borne, Dorsetshire 

Fields. 

^ 2 



m. May, e. Aug. 
m. May, e. July 



1 2 



1 1 



1 5 



1 4 



e. May,b. July 1 



38 



No. 



Linnaean Name. 
Papilio. 



69 ; Paniscus 



70 Comma 



71 



Sylvanus 



72 Lmea 



73 



Tages 



74 



75 



Malvce 



English Name. 
Butterfly. 



Chequered Skip- 
per 



Silver-spotted 
Skipper 



Large Skipper 



Small Skipper 



Dingy Skipper 



Caterpillar 
Feeds upon. 



Grizzled Skipper 



LavatercB | Scarce-grizzled 

Skipper 



39 



Caterpillar. 
When found. 



Butterfly. 
Where found. When found. 



Meadows and Woody 
places and near 
Bedford. 



Chalky soils near 
Lewes in Sussex. 



Woods 



Margins of Woods. 



Dry Heaths, Banks, 
Woods and Com 
mons, Hintleshara, 
Suffolk, Norfolk, 
near London. 



Dry Banks, Woodi 
6c Commons Hart- 
ley Wood, Essex. 



e. May 



e. Aug. 



Expan. 
In. lines 

1 3 



e. May, e. July 



m. July 



b. May 



Commons. 



1 3 



1 4 



1 2 



1 3 



e. May 



e. May 



1 1 



1 1 







40 


• 


No. 


Linnsean Name. 
Papilio. 


English Name. 
Butterfly. 


Butterfly. 
Feeds upon. 


76 

77 
78 


Chrysothome 

Ligea 

Mnemon 










79 
80 


Alcyone 
Blandina 








81 








82 








8S 








84 









4-1 



Caterpillar. 



Butterfly. 



VYhen found. Where found. 



When found. 



Expan. 
In. lines 



Isle of Arran, Scot- 
land. 



Between Ambleside 
& Winandermere. 



Scotland. 



Isle of Arran, Scot- 
land. 



A DESCRIPTIOX 

OF THE 

BUTTERFLIES 

Enumerated in the Synoptical Table. 

1. P. Machaon. This is the largest and one of the 
most beautiful Butterflies, which Britain produces, 
and may be considered as the only British species 
of Papilio, excepting the P. Fodalirius, (the exis- 
tence of which in England is extremely doubtful) 
belonging to the tribe of Equites. 

It is commonly known among the English Collec- 
tors by the title of the Swallow- tailed Butterfly, and 
is of a beautiful yellow, with black spots or patches 
along the upper edge of the superior wings ; all 
the wings are bordered with a deep edging of 
black, decorated by a double row of cresent- 
shaped spots, of which, the upper row is blue, and 
the lower yellow. The under wings are tailed and 
are marked at the inner angle or tip with a round 
red spot bordered with blue and black. 

D 



42 



The Caterpillar, of this species, is of a green 
colour, encircled with numerous black bands spot- 
ted with red ; and is furnished on the top of the 
neck with a Y-shaped organ of a red colour, which 
it occasionally protrudes from that part. It emits a 
very disagreeable smell by which it keeps off the 
ichneumon. It feeds principally on fennel and 
other umbelliferous plants, and is sometimes found 
on rue. — The Caterpillar is solitary, or seldom 
found in numbers together. In the month of July 
it changes into a yellowish-grey angular Chrysalis 
affixed to some convenient part of the plant, or 
other neighbouring substance, and from this Chry- 
salis, in the month of August, proceeds the com- 
plete insect. It sometimes happens that two broods 
of this Butterfly are produced in the same summer ; 
one in May, having been in the pupa state all the 
winter, the other in August, from the Chrysalides 
of July. 

2. P. Podalirius. Wings tailed, both surfaces 
nearly alike, yellowish, with double brown bands 
and margin ; lower ones with five blue ocellated 
spots, and a reddish line beneath. It feeds on dif- 
ferent species of the Brassicce. Caterpillar solitary, 
yellowish, dotted with brown; head pale green. 
Chrysalis, yellowish dotted with brown, marked 



with two slight projections towards the anterior 
extremity. 

3. P. CratcegL Wings entire, white, with black 
veins. This is called the Hawthorn Butterfly, and 
is well-known in this country. It is the size of 
the common Cabbage Butterfly. Caterpillar, grega- 
rious, hairy and yellow, green beneath ; head black ; 
body marked with three black lines. — Chrysalis, 
greenish with black spots and dots. It feeds on 
fruit-trees, and is very destructive in gardens and 
orchards. — This species as well as P. Urficce a fid 
P. Polychloros^ emits a fluid of a reddish colour 
which has frequently given rise to the reports of 
showers of blood which are said to have fallen in 
different places. 

4. P. Brassicoe. The wings of this insect are 
rounded, entire, white ; tip of the upper part brown, 
marked with two black spots. The upper wings in 
the male are without black spots. This is the com- 
mon large white Butterfly known in our gardens. 

The Caterpillar is solitary, yellowish, dotted 
with blueish and black spots, and marked with 
three sulphur-coloured lines ; the tail black. Chry- 
salis, pale-green, marked with three yellow lines, 
and three of its segments globular affixed in a per- 
pendicular direction to some wall or tree or other 



44 



object^ some filaments being drawn through the 
thorax, in order more conveniently to secure its 
position. Eggs set in clusters. 

5. P. Rapce. Wings entire, white ; upper pair 
tipt with brown. Male with a brown spot on each, 
female with three brown spots on the upper, and 
one on the lower pair. This is common in our 
own country. 

Larva, green ; marked with a bright yellow line 
on the back, and bright yellow on the sides. 
Pupa, greenish, marked with three sulphur coloured 
lines. 

6. P. Napi. Wings entire, with dilated green 
veins beneath. It inhabits Europe and Asia, 

7. P. Sinapis. Wings entire, roundish, white ; 
upper pair tipt with brown. This and the three 
preceding are the insects which in the Caterpillar 
or grub state commit such ravages in our gardens. 

8. P. Baplidice. Wings entire, white with a 
brow n margin, beneath marked with yellowish- white 
and green. It inhabits Europe and Africa, but is 
uncommon here. 

Larva, covered with blueish hairs, marked with 
black spots and yellow streaks. 



45 

9. P' Cardamines . Wings entire, white ; upper 
pair of the male, with a large bright orange patch at 
the tip, including two black dots ; the lower ones be- 
neath marbled with green ; the female is without 
the orange tip. 

Larva, solitary, greenish above and whitish be- 
neath. Pupa, green, marked with a white line on 
each side ; thorax conical ascending. 

10. P.Edusa. Wings entire, fulvous, with a black 
dot and margin ; beneath greenish, upper pair with 
a black dot ; lower with a silvery one. 

11. P. Helice. Wings entire; above, white, with 
a black dot and border ; beneath, upper pair with 
a white disk ; lower pair yellowish with a silvery 
ocellar spot and smaller contiguous one. Rare. 

12. P.Europome. Wings entire ; above, yellow 
with a black dot and border ; beneath, yellowish, 
the upper pair having a black spot, the lower pair 
two silvery contiguous ones, one of them larger 
than the other. Rare. 

1 3. Hyale. Wings entire, yellow, the tip black 
spotted with white ; lower ones with a fulvous spot, 
a silvery dot with a smaller contiguous one beneath. 



46 



In the male the margin of the wings is immaculate, 
in the female it is spotted. — Shaw calls this the 
Fern Butterfly, and describes it as a beautiful 
species with orange-yellow wings, bordered with 
black. 

3 4. P.Rhamni. Wings entire, angular, bright 
yellow, each marked with a ferruginous dot in the 
middle. Shaw names this elegant insect the Buck- 
thorn Butterfly, and describes it of " a bright sulphur 
colour with sharp cornered wings, marked by a small 
orange spot in the middle of each." It commonly 
flies about in August, though frequently it lies 
dormant all winter and appears early in Spring ; 
the male is very often of a sulphur-colour, and the 
female white. 

Caterpillar, smooth, green with a dark line on 
the back. Chrysalis, in the anterior part turgid, 
and drawn to a point. 

15. P. Hyperanthus. Wings entire, dark brown ; 
under side of the upper pair with three eyes ; the 
inferior surface of the lower ones with five. The 
wings have sometimes ocelli on their upper sur- 
faces. 

Caterpillar, solitary, hairy, and of an ash colour, 
marked with a black line behind; the tail furnished 



47 



with two little prominences. Chrysalis, brown, 
spotted with yellow and has a hunch on its back. 

16. P. Davus. Wings very entire, fulvous; upper 
pair with an eye, and white bands beneath ; lower 
ones with six eyes. 

1 7. P. Polymeda. Wings indented, black, bronzed 
with a spotted ocellar band, the lower ones with 
flexuous red lunules beneath. This is found on the 
Caprifolium and Lonicera xylosteum, 

18. P.Typhon. Wings entire; above, greyish 
fulvous without spots. Beneath, upper pair adorned 
with 1-2 eyes; the lower pair with 2-5 obsolete 
ones. Rare. 

19. P' Pamphilus, Wings very entire, yellow, 
under side of the upper ones with a single eye ; 
(occasionally double pupilled ) the inferior surface 
of the lower ones cinereous, with a band, and four 
obliterated eyes. 

20. P. lo. Peacock Butterfly, so called on account 
of its eyes and great beauty. It is rather a common 
species in this country. The wings are angular, 
indented, fulvous, spotted with black, and on each 



48 



there is a large blue eye, '' The ground colour of 
this insect" says Dr. Shaw, "is orange-brown with 
black bars, separated by yellow intermediate spaces, 
on the upper edge of the superior wings ; while at 
the tip of each is a most beautiful large eye-shaped 
spot, formed by a combination of black, brown, 
and blue, with the addition of whitish specks ; on 
each of the lower wings is a still larger eye-shaped 
spot, consisting of a black central patch, varied 
with blue, and surrounded by a zone of pale-brown, 
which is itself deeply bordered with black." 

Caterpillar, gregarious, black with numerous 
white spots and black ramified spines, the hind legs 
of a rusty colour, it feeds principally on the nettle. 
Chrysalis, green, dotted with gold, having ten 
small projections on the fore part of the body ; the 
tail divided. 

21. P. Iris. Wings indented, brown, with a blue 
gloss, and whitish interrupted band on each side ; 
all with a single eye, those on the upper pair above, 
blind. This is described and figured by Donovan 
and Lewin. 

22 P. Cardui. Wings indented, fulvous, variega- 
ted with white and black ; the lower ones have four 
eves beneath. 



49 

Caterpillar, spiny. Chrysalis, suspended by its 
tail. 

23. P. Semele. Wings indented, brown, with a 
macular fulvous marginal band, in which are two 
eyes ; upper pair with a fulvous disk at the base 
beneath. Inhabits heaths and rocky wastes. 

Caterpillar, downy, with a globular head, some- 
what compressed in front. Chrysalis, angulated 
with the front bimucromate suspended by the tail. 

24. P. Galathea. Wings indented, varies with 
brown and yellowish- white ; under surface of the 
upper one with a single eye, of the lower ones with 
five. 

Caterpillar, downy, with a globular head, com- 
pressed in front. Chrysalis, angulated suspended 
by the tail. 

25. P. Megcera, Wings indented, yellowish- 
brown with dark bands; upper pair with a single eye; 
lower ones with five eyes above, and six beneath. 
This is found in our own country, and has been 
described and figured by Mr. Donovan 

Caterpillar, hairy, green striped with white ; the 
tail divided. 

26. P. Mgeria. Wings indented, brown, spotted 
with yellow ; upper pair with an eye on each side ; 



50 



lower ones with four eyes above, and dots beneath. 
This is described in Lewin's Butterflies. 

27. P. HampstcdieJisis. Size and form of 
P. JEgeria. Wings entire ; above, upper pair dark 
brown, with five spots and marginal streak yellow ; 
two large eyes having white pupils and broad black 
irides ; lower pair brown, with a marginal-yellow 
streak; two eyes with white pupils and black irides ; 
beneath, upper pair yellowish, clouded w4th dark 
brown, having an obsolete streak composed of dark 
brown lunular spots. Lower pair yellowish a little 
clouded towards the base with dark brown ; have 
a small and nearly obliterated eye with a black iris; 
four dark brown spots, between which and the 
posterior margin is a streak composed of dark brown 
lunular spots. Rare. It has not been taken since 
the time of Petiver. 

28. P. Jurtina. Wings indented, brown, upper 
pair beneath yellow, with a single eye or. each 
side J lower ones with three dots beneath. In the 
female the upper pair of wings has a yellow patch, 
including a single eye on each side. 

Shaw, considers this insect as equally common, 
though far less beautiful thanP./o, and says it is chief- 
ly obseryed in meadows, and is of a brown colour. 



the upper wings having a much brighter or orange- 
ferruginous bar towards the tips, with a small, black 
eye-shaped spot with a white centre : on the oppo- 
site or under side of the insect, the same distribution 
of colours takes place. 

29 P. Piloselloe, Wings indented, brown with a 
yellowish disk, upper pair with a black eye, and 
double pupil on each side ; lower ones with snowy 
eyelike spots beneath. 

30. p. C. Album. Wings angular, fulvous, spotted 
with black ; lower ones beneath marked with a 
white C. 

31. P. Urticoe. Wings angular, fulvous, spotted 
with black ; upper pair with three black dots, the 
inner one square. — It is very common in this 
country, and has been described and figured by 
Donovan and Lewin. 

The Caterpillar is gregarious, spinous, varied 
with brown and green ; head black. Chrysalis, an- 
gular brown, marked with small projections with 
gold dots on the neck, and sometimes entirely of a 
golden colour. 

32. P. Folychhyros, Wings indented, fulvous. 



LIBRARY 

iiKiu/rDci-rv nc iiiiMOiQ 



52 



spotted with black, upper pair with four black dots 
above. 

33. P. Antiopa. Wings angular, indented, black- 
brown, with a whitish border, behind which is a 
row of blue spots — rare. This insect feeds upon 
Salices and Betula. 

34. P. Atalanta. Wings indented, black, upper 
pair with a red band and white spots, the lower 
ones bordered with red behind. This as the Ad- 
miral Butterfly, has been described and figured by 
Lewin, Donovan and Dr. Shaw. The latter says it is 
of the most intense velvet black colour, with a rich 
carmine-coloured bar across the upper wings which 
are spotted towards the tips with white ; while the 
lower wings are black with a deep border of car- 
mine colour, marked by a row of small black spots, 
the under surface of the wings also presents a most 
beautiful mixture of colours ; the caterpillar is 
brown and spiny, feeds on nettles, and changes 
into a chrysalis in July, the fly appearing in 
August. 

35. P. Camilla. Wings indented, dark brown, 
with a white band and dots on each side ; lower 
ones silvery blue at the base. — Caterpillar, elongate. 



53 

Chrysalis, suspended by the tail. — Rare, expect in 
Charlton Wood, Kent, where it is found in great 
plenty. 

36. P. Paphia. This is a highly elegant insect, of 
a fine orange-chesnut colour above, witli numerous 
black spots and bars; beneath, greenish, with 
narrow silvery undulations on the lower wings, and 
black spots on the upper. It proceeds from a 
yellowish-brown spiny caterpillar, living princi- 
pally on nettles. This insect is generally found in 
the neighbourhood of Woods. There is a variety 
cinereous, spotted with black peculiar to Russia. 

37- P' Aglaia. Wings indented, fulvous, spotted 
with black, beneath it has twenty-one silvery spots. 
This is found in England, and other parts of 
Europe. — Caterpillar, spiny. Chrysahs, suspended 
by the tail. 

38. P. Charlotta, Size and form of P. Aglaia, but 
diifers in the upper pair of wings, having beneath, 
four black costal spots instead of five. And in the 
lower pair, having beneath, nineteen silver spots 
instead of twenty-one — of which, the three anterior 
ones are three times larger than in that species. 
Rare. 



54 



Caterpillar, spiny. Chrysalis, suspended by the 
tail. 

39. P. Adippe. Wings indented, fulvous, spotted 
with black ; beneath there are twenty-eight silvery 
spots. Caterpillar, spiny. Chrysalis, suspended 
by the tail. 

40. P. Lathonia. Wings slightly indented, pale, 
fulvous, spotted with black ; beneath with thirty- 
seven silvery spots. — Caterpillar, spiny. Chrysalis, 
suspended by the tail. This is the most beautiful 
British Fritillary. 

41. P. Euphrasy ne. Wings indented, pale, ful- 
vous, spotted with black ; beneath with nine silvery 
spots. Caterpillar, pubescent, with fleshy tuber- 
cules. Chrysalis, suspended by the tail. 

42 . P. Silene* Wings indented, fulvous with black ; 
lower ones beneath, with twelve silvery spots; a 
distinct black dot at the base and streak behind. 

43. P. Tessellata. In size and shape very similar 
to P. Didynna, which it resembles also in the up- 
per surface of its wings ; beneath, the upper pair 
are more fulvous than in that species; lower pair, 
straw-coloured with black veins, but near the base 



55 



have three large square yellowish spots surrounded 
with black ; a band in the middle, composed ot* 
many yellowish spots of a form inclining to square, 
and surrounded with black ; a streak of black lu- 
nules; a marginal band of yellowish spots also 
encircled with black, each yellow spot having a 
black lunule; lastly they are ciliated with white, 
the cilia being intersected with black veins. 

44. P. Dictynna, Wings indented, black, with 
fulvous spots ; lower ones beneath fulvous, with 
white spots at the base, and band in the middle > 
the tip with yellow lunules. 

45. P. Eos. Rather less than P. Dictynna, above, 
upper pair fulvous, with black veins, blotches, 
waved streak and band: lower pair black, with 
waved streak, consisting of six square fulvous spots, 
one of which is bifid; beneath, upper pair fulvous, 
with two square black spots ; a broad black band 
intersected by fulvous veins; a streak composed of 
black confluent lunules ; and a nan'ow black mar- 
ginal streak : lower pair fulvous at the base, with 
about eight square contigious black spots ; in the 
middle an undulated white band intersected by 
black veins ; behind that band, a streak of fulvous 
iunules with black margins ; then a waved streak 



56 



of black lunulesj and lastly, a narrow marginal 
black streak. All the wings are ciliated with black 
and white as in P. Dictynna. Rare. 

45. P. Cinxia. Wings indented, black with ful- 
vous spots; lower ones with three whitish bands, 
dotted with black beneath. Rare. 

47. P. Arlemis. Wings indented, fulvous varie- 
gated with black ; lower ones with a streak of black 
dots on each side. 

48. P.Lucina. Wings indented, brown with tes- 
taceous spots ; lower ones with two rows of whitish 
spots beneath. 

49. P. BeUilce. Wings slightly tailed, brown; be- 
neath, yellowish with two white streaks on the 
lower ones. Shaw describes this a small species, 
of a blackish-brown colour with a broad orange bar 
on the upper wrings, the lower pair being slightly 
produced into two orange-coloured tails or processes 
towards the inner corner. 

50. P. Pruni. Wings slightly tailed, above 
brown, with a red spot at the tip of the lower ones; 
lower wings beneath, with a fulvous marginal band 
dotted with black. 



31 

51. P. Quercus. Wings slightly tailed, bluei^h, 
beneath cinereous, with a white streak, and double 
fulvous spot near the tail. 

52. P. Rubi. Wings shghtly tailed, above 
brown, beneath green. 

53. P. Dispar, Wings above, bright copper colour 
with black spots and margin ; beneath, lower pair 
pale blue, with many subocellar spots, and copper 
coloured margin. Rare. 

5i. P. Virgaurece, Wings subangular, fulvous, 
edged with black, beneath with black and white 
dots. 

55, P. Chryseis. Wings bright copper with a pur- 
plish margin, lower ones slightly indented, beneath 
dull grey, with numerous ocellai- dots. Extremely 
rare, 

56, P.Phlceas. Wings entire, fulvous, dotted 
with black, beneath blueish. 

57, P. Arion. Wings above blue, edged with 
brown, and spotted with black ; beneath, grey, with 
numerous small eyes. 

E 



58 



58' Corydon. Wings entire, blue, edged with 
black ; beneath, cinereous Avith black ocellar dots, 
lower ones with a white central spot. 

5Q. P. Labienus, Antennae black, girdled with 
white, their clubs being brown with black rings ; 
above pink blue ; upper pair of wings have the an- 
terior margin white without cilia, exterior margin 
dark brown with very short cilia ; lower pair bor- 
dered with dark brown, and edged with short white 
cilia ; beneath, both pair of wings at their bases are 
dark with pearly scales. Upper pair with nine 
ocellar, six subtriangular, and six suboeellar black 
spots ; lower pair with eleven ocellar spots ranged 
in the form of a triangle, having in their centre a 
large triangular white spot with a black pupil ; also 
eight triangular black marks, and seven suboeellar 
black spots. This species has no fulvous spots 
beneath. Rare. 

60. P. Adonis. Wings entire, blue, with a black 
marginal streak, beneath cinereous, with numerous 
ocellar dots and a while central spot in the lower 
ones. 

61. P. Icarus, Wings entire, above with brown 
bands beneath with alternate white and black bands* 



59 



62. P. Hyacinthus. Wings entire, blue, lower 
ones beneath, with a marginal row of red eyes, and a 
circle oi black ones on the disk, 

63. P. Argus. Wings entire, lower ones benealh 
with a ferruginous border and silvery blue eyes. 

64. P. Idas. Wings indented, brown, with a yel- 
low disk; the upper pair with a black bipupillaie 
eye on each side, the lower ones varied with grey 
beneath. 

65. P. Artaxerxes. Wings entire, brown, upper 
pair with a white dot in the middle; lower ones with 
rufous marginal lunuies, beneath with rufous and 
white dots on the margin. 

66. P. Argiolus, Wings entire, blue, edged with 
black ; beneath, blueish-grey, spotted with black. 

67. P. Cymon, Wings above, blue, with a black 
marginal line ; beneath, with one common streak of 
ocellated spots. Female, above, entirely black with 
cinereous cilia. Rare. 

68. P. Alsus. Wings entire, brown, immaculate, 
beneath cinereous, with a streak of ocellate dots. 



60 



69. P' Paniscus. Wings divaricate, dark brown 
with fulvous spots, 

70. P. Comma, Wings entire, divaricate fulvous, 
with a black line on the upper pair, beneath spotted 
v.ith white. 

7l» P.Sylvanus, Wings divaricate, dark orange, 
with square yellow spots above, and whitish ones be- 
neath. 

72. P. Linea, Wings entire, divaricate fulvous, 
edged with black. 

73. P.Tages, Wings entire, denticulatCj brown, 
with (obsolete white dots. 

74. P. MalvcB. Wings entire, divaricate, brown 
with cinereous weaves } upper pair with hyaline dots> 
lower ones with white dots beneath. — Shaw describes 
it of a blackish or brown colour, with nunaerous 
whitish or semi-transparent spots, 

7b. P.Lavaterce. Wings entire, brown ; upper 
pair with white spots, lower ones with white dots; 
all with a snowy lunule in the middle. 



6i 



P. Ligea. Wings dentated brown, with a rufous 
band : the anterior having four eyelets on both 
sides, the posterior three, the latter also spotted 
with white. 

P. Mnemon. 

P. Alcyone. Wings dentated brown, banded with 
yellow : the anterior having two eyelets on both 
sides, the posterior marbled underneath. 

P. Blandina. Wings dentated, brown : with a 
rufous ocellated band, the posterior brown under- 
neath ; with a cinereous band. 



The following Butterflies are enumerated in 
Rees' Cyclopaedia, but their existence as British 
is doubtful. 

P. Arcanius. Wings very entire, ferruginous ; 
under surface of the upper ones, with a single eye; 
of the lower ones, with five, separated by a band. 

P. Hero. Wings very entire, fulvous, under sur- 
face of the upper pair with a single eye, of the 
lower one with six. 



6'2 



P. Phcedra. Wings indented brown; both sides 
alike, upper pair with two violet eyes. 

P. Maturna. Wings indented, varied with ful- 
vous and black ; lower ones beneath with yellow 
bands, and waved black streaks, the base impunc- 
tured. 

P. Dia, Wings fulvous, spotted with black, 
lower ones beneath purple, the base with yellow and 
silvery spots, and an obsolete silvery band in the 
middle. 

Equites. Greeks. 

P. Levana. Wings denticulated, variegated, be- 
neath reticulate, upper ones with a few white spots. 

Hesperia, Rurales. 

P. Titus. Wings entire, brown, immaculate; 
lower ones ocellate beneath, and a macular fulvous 
streak behind. 

P. Hippoihoe. Wings entire, orange edged with 
black and white ; beneath cinereous, with numer- 
ous black ocellar dots. Inhabits the fens of Cam- 



6s 



bridgeshire, and has been observed near Aberdeen 
in Scotland. 

Hesperia, Urbicol^. 

P. Thaumas. Wings divaricate, orange, with a 
darker patch at the base, the upper pair, in the 
male, with a black line in the middle. 

P. Fritillum, Wings entire, divaricate, black 
dotted with white. 

Nymphales. 

p. Moera, Wings notched, brown ; the upper 
marked on both surfaces with one eyelet, and the 
under with five eyelets on the superior, and six on 
the inferior surface — A native of Europe; on pas- 
ture ground. Caterpillar hairy, green, striped with 
white : the tail divided. 



65 



As the reader may wish to know the names, as 
far as they relate to those enumerated in the pre- 
ceding list, of those genera and subgenera into 
which modern Entomologists have sub-divided the 
the original Linnaean genus Papilio, they are, by 
the favor of the Rev. Wm. Kirby, here subjoined ; 
adding, as far as they could be ascertained, the pe- 
culiar characters which distinguish the eggs, cater- 
pillars, and chrysalises of each kind, wliich it is 
trusted will enable the collector to detect them 
under every form. 

N. B. The numbers refer to those in the table. 



Order LEPIDOPTERA. 

Section dayfliers. 



1 — 2. Papilio. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar naked, with a Y-shaped scent- 
organ, issuing from its neck when alarmed. 
Chrysalis angular, girted (a); head-case 
eared (b). Sepp. I. ii. pi. iii. 

(a) That is called a girted Chrysalis, which is suspended by a 
silken thread, round its body. 

(b) The eared head-piece terminates in a pair of processes some- 
what like ears. 



66 



3. Pjekis. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar subfusiform, hairy, subtuber- 

culated. 

Chrysalia angular, girted ; head-case 

beaked with an obtuse beak (c). DeGeer 

i. PL xiv. Fig. 13—19. Hiibn. Schmet- 

PI. Ixxix. c. a, b. 

4 — 8. Pont I A. Egg ovate, acuminate, many -ridged. 

Caferpi//ar subfusiform, downy, sometimes 

tuberculated. 

Chrysalis angular, girted, head-case beaked 

with a sharp beak. Sepp. I. ii. PL i, li, iv. 

— 13. CoLiAS. Egg unknown (d). 

Caterpillar naked, tuberculated. 
Chrysalis subangular, hunched girted ; 
Iccad-case beaked, with a long beak. 
Merian Surinam : Hubn. Schmet. PL Iviii. 
c. d. 

14. GoN^EPTERYx. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar naked. 

Chrysalis subangular, hunched, loosely 
girted : head-case beaked, with a sharp 
beak. De Geer I PL xv. Fig. 1 — 11. 
Hlibn. Schmet. PL Ixxxviii. c. d. 



(c) The beaAcd head piece terminates io a single process. 
(il) Pojfilio Cardamines is osualiy taken for a Pontto, but the 
liuiich of the Chrysalis shews that it belongs rather to Colias. 



15.-19. HiPPARCHiA. Egg various (e). 

23-29. Caterpillar subfusiform, tuberculated ; 

76-79. taU bifid. 

Chrysalis subangular, suspended (f ) ; 

head-case eared. Sepp. I. i. PL iii — vi. 

20-22. Vanessa. Egg oval, many-ridged, umbilicated 

30—34. Caterpillar spinose. 

Chrysalis angular, suspended; head-case 
eared. Sepp. I. i. PI. ii, vii. 

21. Apatura. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar homed at the head. 
Chrysalis angular, suspended; head-case 
eared (g). Hiibn. Schmet. PI. xxv. E. c. 

35. LiMENiTis. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar long, spinose or setose, tuber- 

culated. 

Chrysalis subangular, hunched, suspended; 

head-case beaked (h). Hiibn. Schmet. 

PI. xxii. D. b. 

(e) In this genus sometimes (H. Pilvsella. Sepp. I. i. PI. iii. Fig. 
2.) the egg is subconical, many-ridged, with the vertex truncated: 
at others (jff. Hyperanthus. Sepp. I. i. PI. iv. Fig. 2 ) it is subglobose, 
without ridges, and covered with little punctures. In some 
{H. Jurtina. Sepp, I. i. PI. v. Fig, 2.) it is of the same shape as the 
last named, but it is many-ridged, and scaly at the vertex : and 
lastly in others (H. jEgeria- Sepp. I. i. PI. vi. Fig. i.) the form re 
mains the game but the surface resembles net work. 

(f ) By this term it is meant that the chrysalis is suspended 
by its tail. 

(g) N. Diet. D'Hisf. Nat. xxiii. 140. (h) Ibid 146. 



68 

36-40. Argyicwis. £^^ conical, subumbilicate,many.ridged, 
vertex rounded. 
Caterpillar spinose. 

Chrysaiis subangular, suspended; head- 
case notched. Sepp. II. i. PL i. 

41—48. Melit^a. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar spinose, pubescent. 
Chrysalis subangular, suspended; head- 
case rounded. De Geer ii. PL L Fig. 10 
—18. HUbn. Schmet. PL i. a. a. 

49—62. Thecla. Egg unknown. 

Caterpillar onisciform (i), short, flat. 
Chrysalis girted, head-case rounded. 

Reaum. L PL xxriii. Fig. 1 7. Hubn. 

Schmet. PL Ixxii. a. a. 

53 — 68. LYCiENA. Egg unknown. 

Cater jAllar onisciform, flat. 
Chrytalis girted, head-case rounded 
De Geer :. PL iv. Fig. 9—15. Hubn . 
Schmet. ^1. Ixiv. a. a, a. 

69-75. Hespehia. £^^ unknown. 

Caterpillar naked, or pubescent,fusif orm (k). 
Chrysalis inclosed in a cocoon, head-case 
rounded notched (1). Reaum. i. PL xi* 

Fig. 6 12. TLxihn. Schmet. PL xcv. e. 

(i) Caterpillars are so called when Ihey somewhat resemble an 

Oniscus or wood«louse. 

(k) Thickest in the middle, and tapering gradually to each end. 

(1) These caterpillars fasten leaves together with silk like many 

moths, and in them tmdergo their metamorphosis, inclosed in a 

slight cocoon. 






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